Stooping down for a drink of water, the hunter’s eye was transfixed by a shimmering object resting among the gravels of a shallow

Unknown Miners, Rough and Ready

Unknown Miners, Rough and Ready

stream. Plunging his hand into the chilly waters, he grasped the gold nugget and hastened back to camp to tell his fellow adventurers their search was over. It was September of 1849.

The party had left Shellsburg, Wisconsin, in the spring of 1849, fired up by the news of Marshall’s discovery and anxious to make their fortune. Led by Captain A. A. Townsend, who had served under General Zachary “Old Rough and Ready” Taylor during the Mexican War, the party crossed the plains in a dozen covered wagons, calling themselves the Rough and Ready Mining Company in honor of the general. The camp they established acquired the same name.

The diggings in and around Rough and Ready proved to be quite rich; one report cites a miner discovering a gold nugget weighing eighteen pounds. Townsend and his brothers took out over $40,000 in only a few months and knew they could make a fortune if they had more men to work for them. To this end the captain returned to Wisconsin and offered to pay the expenses of any man who would accompany him to California. In return, the men would work under his direction for one year, sharing fifty-fifty with Townsend any gold they found.

Forty men agreed to these terms and hit the trail for California. But the camp had grown while Townsend was away, and when they reached the diggings in the fall of 1850, they found nearly every foot of ground for miles around staked out. They even had trouble finding a place to pitch their tents, as many hundreds of men were working the ravines and flats of the region.

While he was gone, Townsend missed a history-making event, for on April 7 of 1850, Rough and Ready became the first town to secede from the United States. The citizens were apparently fed up with the government after a mining tax was imposed on all claims, and at the lack of law and order in the area which local authorities would do nothing about. Legend has it a town meeting was called to discuss the problems and the resulting solution was to secede from the United States and form the Great Republic of Rough and Ready, answerable to no sovereignty but themselves. Accordingly, a constitution was drafted, a president elected, and a cabinet formed. The miners chose E. F. Brundage as their president and his first act was to appoint a Secretary of State and a Republic Marshall.The Republic lasted approximately three months. As the Fourth of July approached, the neighboring towns commenced preparing grand celebrations, which would include speeches, parades, and other festivities. The citizens of Rough and Ready felt left out, and before long, patriotism replaced their displeasure with the government. Besides, they wanted to celebrate. At the last minute a mass meeting was called and the Independent Republic of Rough and Ready was dissolved. Plans were immediately begun for their own Fourth of July event.

rough and Ready, CA circa 1857

rough and Ready, CA circa 1857

The town suffered its first disastrous fire on June 28 of 1850, from which it quickly rebounded as the miners and merchants alike would not be forced from the prosperous diggings. The town grew and soon came to be one of the most important in the district, even aspiring to become the county seat of the newly created Nevada County in 1851. The camp had settled down somewhat, a law and order committee had been elected, a Christian Association was holding services, and the Odd Fellows and Masons had established themselves. More than three hundred frame buildings were now located in Rough and Ready.

The 1850’s were good years for the town, during which time it was the center of activity in the region. But as the gold slowly gave out in the creeks and on the flats, and after the fires of 1856 and 1859 nearly obliterated the town, leaving only twenty-four houses, the town declined almost as quickly as it had developed. But not everyone left town when the gold and buildings disappeared. Many people remained and the post office, which was established on July 25 of 1851, still serves the town and surrounding country.

W. H. Fippin’s Blacksmith

W.H. Fippin’s Blacksmith Shop was originally built by John Fippin and John Single in the mid-1850s. After the disastrous R & R fire, the Fippin Front w folksshop was quickly rebuilt and they successfully continued their operation. W. H. Fippin was the eldest of 10 children born to John and Julia (Single) Fippin. Shoeing horses, making tools, repairing wagons and buggies were all in a day’s work for the town blacksmith and Fippin was kept busy during the town’s heyday. An old story is told that young Lotta Crabtree made her debut in this neat little wooden building, singing and performing a quick dance on top of the smithy’s anvil, to a roomful of cheering miners.

Small Towns with Big History
By Jean Poulsen
Nevada County Gold

One of the first settlements in Nevada County was Rough and Ready some five miles west of Grass Valley. Established in the fall of 1849, it quickly grew to a thriving town of 3,000, and went down in history as having seceded from the Union.

The town was founded by a group of miners led by Captain A.A. Townsend. He served uner “Old Rough and Ready” Zachary Taylor, commander of American forces in the Mexican War. He so admired Taylor, he named his company Rough and Ready, a name the town adopted.

Early mining success was dampened when the government imposed a Mining Tax on all claims. The miners were furious. On April 7, 1850, a meeting was held and the decision was made to secede from the Union. An independent state was organized, a president elected and constitution signed. The new republic didn’t last long for when it came time to celebrate the Fourth of July Old Glory went up the flag pole and that was that History is resurrected each year at Rough and Ready’s Secession Day celebration held the last Sunday in June. A highlight of the day long event is “The Ongoing Saga of Rough and Ready,” performed by the Rough and Ready Rascals.

Visitors to this quiet rural community will find several old buildings still standing that date from the 1850s including the W.H. Fippin Blacksmith Shop and Grange Hall.

CR&R Hotel